Another village that can be seen from Casa Bellavista is Castiglion Fiorentino, here are some historical and artistic notes:
In antiquity The Castilian territory was a fundamental crossroad between the two cities of Arezzo and Cortona; the center was erected on the top of the Cassero hill, as the archaeological excavations carried out in the area testified, which have restored an extraordinary continuity of life since the VIII century BC.
Once the conquest by the Romans took place, Castiglioni continued to play an important role in both the road and the fluvial connections of ancient Etruria. The agricultural production was organized in the form of villa-farms and the economy of the area flourished until the fall of the Roman Empire.
During the medieval period the town is noted in documents with the name of Castiglione from the tenth century, when it was a fief of the Marquises of Monte Santa Maria. In fact in the early Middle Ages, while remaining under the protection of the emperor, Castiglione was subdued to the powerful diocese of Arezzo. The formation of the free municipality began with the second half of the twelfth century, but was continually opposed by the large neighbouring municipalities, Florence and Perugia.
So much so that it was called Castiglion Aretino then Perugino and finally Fiorentino in 1384.
FROM THE MIDDLE AGES TO TODAY
The Medici government followed that of the Grand Duchy of Lorraine (1765). It was above all Pietro Leopoldo who decided to revalue the marsh area, commissioning the engineer Vittorio Fossombroni to reclaim it.
The Florentine domination ended in 1799, when the French took Tuscany. Except for a short interval, Castiglion Fiorentino was guarded by the Napoleonic troops from 1800 to 1814. With the Restoration the Lorena returned, and completed the work of reclamation of the Valdichiana.
Later Castiglion Fiorentino followed the fate of Tuscany and the Kingdom of Italy. The passage of the war front during the Second World War was the cause of huge devastation, both in the historic centre and much of the municipal territory, hit by bombs that caused hundreds of deaths among civilians.
- Palazzo l Comunale, built in the 14th century during the Perugian domination ;
- The Pinacoteca Comunale, housed in the premises of the ancient church of Sant’Angelo. There are preserved chorales, religious objects, local ceramics and gold artefacts, as well as paintings by the Umbrian and Tuscan schools ;
- La Torre del Cassero, which dominates the city and rises on the oldest inhabited area of Castiglion Fiorentino. Rebuilt during the Perugian domination around the middle of the XIV century (the small tower at the apex of the Tower dates back to 1350), the Tower was built on the basis of a previous Etruscan structure ;
- Palazzo Pretorio (1412), hosting the Municipal Library and the Archaeological Museum. The latter preserves mostly bronze or terracotta finds from the Etruscan, Roman and medieval ages ;
- Le Logge del Vasari (built in 1513 and only later remodeled by Vasari ), located in the Piazza del Municipio on the side opposite the Palazzo Comunale. They overlook the Valle di Chio and the Collegiata;
- The municipal theater, built between the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries